Proposal to change additional defaults in MySQL 5.7 (February Edition)

Following on from my two earlier posts, in the MySQL team we are proposing a new set of changes to defaults for MySQL 5.7:

Setting Old Default New Default
log_slow_admin_statements OFF ON
log_slow_slave_statements OFF ON
long-query-time 10 2
log-queries-not-using-indexes OFF ON
min-examined-row-limit 0 1000
MySQL Command Line Client - +show_warnings
group_concat_max_len 1024 1M
max_allowed_packet 4M 64M
symbolic-links - OFF
temp-pool 1 0
table_open_cache_instances 1 16

To explain these changes in more details:

  • The slow query log remains disabled by default, but when enabled our hope is that we can make it immediately useful. A query exceeding 2 seconds will now be considered slow, and since queries that do not use indexes have the highest chance of causing future problems, they will also be logged unless they examine fewer than 1000 rows. The number of 1000 was chosen because it should eliminate the majority of false positives from queries retrieving a static set of records such as navigation menu items, which are well suited to tablescans.

    In proposing this change, we considered the defaults that other products use for considering a query slow. A popular web performance tool uses a default of 0.5 seconds for an acceptable time to render a full page server side, with 2 seconds (4x) slow enough to warrant logging. Our own MySQL Enterprise Monitor considers 100ms acceptable, and 400ms (4x) as slow. We also considered that setting the min-examined-row-limit to a non zero value will now require an additional step for those that set their long-query-time to zero seconds. We would like to thank Daniel Black for suggesting we change our slow query log options.

  • The MySQL command line client has the ability to automatically print warnings out to screen as they occur. We feel like ON is the more useful default, as a user will typically not intend to execute statements that cause warnings. This behavior applies to both interactive and batch modes, and can be disabled with show_warnings=0. We would like to thank Ryuta Kamizono for this suggestion.
  • We find the GROUP_CONCAT() function in MySQL to be incredibly useful for summarizing results in an aggregate query. We also believe that the default maximum length for grouping values has not kept pace with the larger amounts of memory available on modern hardware. We would like to thank Shlomi Noach for this suggestion.
  • In MySQL 5.6 we increased the max_allowed_packet from 1M to a conservative 4M. We have received a lot of feedback on this change, and are proposing to increase the default to 64M for MySQL 5.7. We would like to thank Shlomi Noach for this suggestion.
  • Many of our configuration files for MySQL packages (as well as those that ship with Linux distributions) default to disabling symbolic links for security reasons. We feel that changing a de facto default to a compiled default will improve user experience (as well as security). We would like to thank Honza Horak for this suggestion.
  • The temp-pool option was originally created as a means to work around potential filesystem issues on Linux when using internal MyISAM based temp tables. The underlying OS issues have since been resolved, and disabling this option removes mutex contention for all disk based temp table engines (MyISAM and InnoDB).
  • We are proposing to increase the default table_open_cache_instances to 16 in order to reduce contention on internal mutexes when opening tables.

For those of you who would like to test out these changes (along with previous changes proposed), I have sample configuration files available:

Please let us know what you think of these changes!
You can leave a comment here, or get in touch via email.

Proposal to change additional defaults in MySQL 5.7

Following on from my earlier proposal to change Replication + InnoDB settings, in the MySQL team, we are proposing to make the following additional changes to defaults in MySQL 5.7:

Setting Old Default New Default
binlog_error_action IGNORE_ERROR ABORT_SERVER
innodb_checksum_algorithm INNODB CRC32
innodb_page_cleaners 1 4
innodb_purge_threads 1 4
innodb_strict_mode OFF ON
innodb_log_file_size 48M 128M
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_at_shutdown OFF ON
innodb_buffer_pool_load_at_startup OFF ON
innodb_buffer_pool_dump_pct 100 25
innodb_file_format Antelope Barracuda
innodb_large_prefix OFF ON
binlog_gtid_recovery_simplified OFF ON
sync_binlog 0 1
slave_net_timeout 3600 60
P_S config Enable events_statements_history and events_transactions_history consumers by default
MySQL CLI Prompt mysql> prompt="\u@\h [\d] > "

To explain the motivation behind these changes:

  • The binlog_error_action variable was introduced in MySQL 5.6 after the GA release, and for compatibility defaulted to previous behavior (ignore errors). Since some applications depend on reading from slaves after writing to masters, we feel that the better behavior is to abort.
  • The InnoDB CRC32 checksum was introduced in MySQL 5.6, and offers CPU accelerated page checksum computation. Since previous versions of MySQL were unable to read the new checksum, enabling this feature would have restricted downgrades to dump-and-restore. With MySQL 5.6 supporting the CRC32 checksum, the timing now makes sense to make this the default in 5.7.
  • In some workloads the InnoDB purge and page cleaning operations will not be able to keep up with modifications made inside InnoDB. In combination with newer storage devices that offer very high throughput and accommodate parallel writes, we feel that having multiple threads is a better default.
  • Currently the InnoDB storage engine ignores CREATE TABLE options that it does not understand (innodb_strict_mode=0). We feel this negatively impacts user experience, and are proposing to enable InnoDB strict mode in advance. The downside of this change is that some DDL statements that worked in 5.6 failing by default in 5.7. Thank you to Daniël van Eeden for providing this suggestion.
  • Since the InnoDB buffer pool now supports online resizing (and the innodb log files do not), we believe it makes sense to increase the size of the log files slightly in anticipation of an increased buffer pool size. This comes at a small cost of additional disk space usage. We felt that 128M was a good balance in size, since while larger log files are better for performance, there is also a trade off point where the log files benefit from filesystem caches. Thank you to Justin Swanhart for providing this suggestion.
  • With the increased availability of large memory, waiting for caches to warm back up after restarts has been an increased operational concern. MySQL 5.6 introduced a feature to be able to dump buffer pool page addresses (at a small fraction of total size) to assist in warming caches after restarts. MySQL 5.7 introduces an additional feature to dump only a percentage of the buffer pool, and we felt that by limiting this to 25% was a good tradeoff to enable this by default. Thank you to Daniel Black and Daniël van Eeden for this suggestion.
  • The InnoDB Barracuda file format was first introduced in the InnoDB plugin for MySQL 5.1, and enables InnoDB to use the new DYNAMIC row format (with improved BLOB handling) and COMPRESSED tables. Setting the InnoDB file format to Barracuda depended on innodb-file-per-table=1 (default changed in MySQL 5.6), and introduced an incompatibility that would prevent downgrades to earlier releases. With both MySQL 5.5 and 5.6 supporting Barracuda, the timing now makes sense to enable this by default. Thank you to Daniël van Eeden for providing this suggestion.
  • The innodb_large_prefix prefix option was introduced for Barracuda tables as an option to support much longer index key prefixes (up to 3072 bytes). It was disabled by default so that users did not accidentally create Barracuda tables that would be incompatible on Antelope systems (which would not allow downgrading). With Barracuda becoming the default, and our friends at WordPress and Drupal wanting to create much larger indexes to support utf8mb4 encoded columns, we decided to change this to default to on.
  • The binlog_gtid_recovery_simplified option was released after MySQL 5.6 was released as GA, and defaulted to OFF for backwards compatibility. We feel that ON is the better default, and plan to make this change for MySQL 5.7.
  • With the addition of binary log group commit in MySQL 5.6, the impact from enabling sync_binlog=1 on many non-synthetic workloads should be reduced considerably. This change makes MySQL binary logs durable/crash safe by default.
  • The slave_net_timeout defaults to one hour, which is too long for most modern systems. In addition: MySQL 5.7 now uses this value divided by two to configure the default master heartbeat period. We believe that a one minute default is more appropriate. Thank you to Miguel Angel Nieto for providing this suggestion.
  • In MySQL 5.7, performance_schema can now instrument transactions, which can be incredibly useful when enabled by default. In addition, enabling statements history (introduced in 5.6) provides a lot of useful meta-data for diagnosing performance problems. Thank you to Daniël van Eeden for providing this suggestion.
  • The MySQL command line client has long supported the ability to change the default prompt from "mysql >" to include additional details such as the username and database selected. This is mostly a cosmetic change, but it is useful when you are managing multiple servers. Thank you to Daniël van Eeden for providing this suggestion.
  • In MySQL 5.7 we have already made changes to the default SQL mode: enabling ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY and STRICT_TRANS_TABLES by default. There is a long standing usability issue with user grants, where a typo in the username could result in a new user being created. We have decided that it is best to disable this behavior by enabling the NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER sql mode by default. Thank you to Daniël van Eeden for providing this suggestion.

In addition to these changes, we have decided to withdraw our proposal to change the default isolation level to READ-COMMITTED. We will re-evaluate this decision for future releases.

For those wishing to test out these new configuration settings, I have configuration file available to try out:

Please let us know what you think of these changes!
You can leave a comment here, or get in touch via email.

Proposal to change Replication and InnoDB Settings in MySQL 5.7

In the MySQL Team, we are currently evaluating potential changes to the default server configuration for MySQL 5.7. For more context, please see my earlier post here.

One of the specific changes we would like to make is with the following three related replication and InnoDB settings:

Setting Old Default New Default
binlog_format STATEMENT ROW
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode 1 ("consecutive" lock mode) 2 ("interleaved" lock mode)

We are considering these changes as a package, for the following reasons:

  • Enabling row based binary logging is the safer option for new applications. It allows all types and combinations of statements to be replicated safely (deterministically), and makes slaves more crash-resilient when using features such as temporary tables.

  • InnoDB requires row-based replication in order to provide the READ-COMMITTED isolation level. In making these two changes together, InnoDB performance is improved:

    • There is no InnoDB gap locking except for foreign-key constraint checking and duplicate-key checking. Also, record locks for nonmatching rows are released after MySQL has evaluated the WHERE condition (link to the manual here).

    • INSERT INTO T SELECT ... FROM S WHERE ... sets an exclusive index record without a gap lock on each row inserted into T. If the transaction isolation level is READ COMMITTED, InnoDB does the search on S as a consistent read (no locks). Otherwise, InnoDB sets shared next-key locks on rows from S. InnoDB has to set locks in the latter case: In roll-forward recovery from a backup, every SQL statement must be executed in exactly the same way it was done originally.

      CREATE TABLE ... SELECT ... performs the SELECT with shared next-key locks or as a consistent read, as for INSERT ... SELECT.

      When a SELECT is used in the constructs REPLACE INTO t SELECT ... FROM s WHERE ... or UPDATE t ... WHERE col IN (SELECT ... FROM s ...), InnoDB sets shared next-key locks on rows from table s." (link to the manual here)

    It is important to note that READ-COMMITTED represents a relaxed consistency over REPEATABLE-READ, but is also the default isolation level chosen by SQL Server, PostgreSQL and Oracle.

    For some additional context, Peter Zaitsev recently blogged about the advantages of READ-COMMITTED.

  • Setting innodb_autoinc_lock_mode to 2 also requires row based replication, and improves concurrency since the Auto Increment number no longer needs to be locked to provide a consecutive set of numbers for a bulk insert operation. The MySQL manual describes this new lock mode as "interleaved".

It is important to remember that these represent changes to the default configuration, and reflect what we believe is the best default choice for new applications. We will of course continue to fully support the previous configuration settings should a user prefer these.

With that being said, we are seeking feedback from the community: Do you agree that these represent the best set of defaults for new applications?

Please leave a comment, or get in touch!

Update Jan 23 2015: We have decided to withdraw our proposal to change the default isolation level to READ-COMMITTED for MySQL 5.7. We will reevaluate this decision in the the future.

What defaults would you like to see changed in MySQL 5.7?

In MySQL 5.6, one of the most well received changes was improving the default configuration to be safer, and easier to use.

We are seeking community feedback for improvements that can be made to the default configuration in MySQL 5.7. Please leave a comment, or get in touch with me via email.

For elimination of confusion, please state both the setting you would like changed, and the new desired value.


An easy way to describe MySQL's Binary Log Group Commit

It struck me today; there is an easy way to describe MySQL's Binary Log group commit improvements from MySQL 5.0-5.7 by using the example of a single ferry trying to ship passengers from point A to point B:

Ferry from Point A to point B

MySQL 5.0 Behaviour

In MySQL 5.0, the ferry will pick up the next passenger in line from point A, and transfer them to point B. The trip between A and B takes about 10 minutes return trip, so it's possible that several new passengers will arrive while the ferry is in transit. That doesn't matter; when the ferry arrives back at point A, it will only pick up the very next passenger in line.

MySQL 5.6 Behaviour

In MySQL 5.6, the ferry will pick up all passengers from the line at point A, and then transfer them to point B. Each time it returns to point A to pick up new passengers, it will collect everyone who is waiting and transfer them across to point B.

This is measurably better performance in real-life situations where many passengers tend to arrive while waiting for the ferry to arrive back at point A, and the trip between A and B tends to take some time. It is not so measurable in naive benchmarks that run in a single-thread.

There is no configuration necessary to enable group commit in 5.6. It works by default.

MySQL 5.7 Behaviour

MySQL 5.7 behaves similarly to 5.6 in that it will pick up all waiting passengers from point A and transfer them to point B, but with one notable enhancement!

When the ferry arrives back at point A to pick up waiting passengers, it can be configured to wait just a little bit longer with the knowledge that new passengers will likely arrive. For example: if you know the trip between point A and point B is 10 minutes in duration, why not wait an extra 30 seconds at point A before departing? This may save you on roundtrips and improve the overall number of passengers that can be transported.

The configuration variables for artificial delay are binlog-group-commit-sync-delay (delay in microseconds) and binlog-group-commit-sync-no-delay-count (number of transactions to wait for before deciding to abort waiting).


In this example passengers are obviously transactions, and the ferry is an expensive fsync operation. It's important to note that there is just one ferry in operation (a single set of ordered binary logs), so being able to tune this in 5.7 provides a nice level of advanced configuration.

Configuring MySQL to use minimal memory

I've been experimenting with MySQL Fabric - the official tool in development to provide HA and sharding. Part of this experimentation has meant that I have been running 7 copies of the MySQL Server on my laptop at once, which can consume a lot of memory :)

So today I wanted to write about how to configure MySQL to use less memory, which may also be beneficial in situations where peak performance is not important. For example: a developer VM environment.

Previous configuration guides

Before I get started, let me point to some of my previous configuration guides:

Configuring MySQL to use minimal memory

The MySQL defaults have to balance performance with what is considered reasonable for what may be a development system with other applications needing to run alongside MySQL. In many cases, this will mean 4-8GB, but on virtual machines (or in my case with 7 copies of mysqld running), there is a lot less available.

Obligatory warning: If you are running these settings on a machine with 1GB+ RAM, you should expect worse performance when compared to the defaults.

Setting Default Minimum
innodb_buffer_pool_size 128M 5M
innodb_log_buffer_size 1M 256K
query_cache_size 1M 0
max_connections 151 1 (although 10 might be more reasonable)
key_buffer_size 8388608 8
thread_cache_size (autosized) 0
host_cache_size (autosized) 0
innodb_ft_cache_size 8000000 1600000
innodb_ft_total_cache_size 640000000 32000000
thread_stack 262144 131072
sort_buffer_size 262144 32K
read_buffer_size 131072 8200
read_rnd_buffer_size 262144 8200
max_heap_table_size 16777216 16K
tmp_table_size 16777216 1K
bulk_insert_buffer_size 8388608 0
join_buffer_size 262144 128
net_buffer_length 16384 1K
innodb_sort_buffer_size 1M 64K
binlog_cache_size 32K 4K
binlog_stmt_cache_size 32K 4K

(Note: you may be able to save a little more memory by disabling InnoDB or performance schema, but I don't recommend these two steps.)

To summarize these changes:

# /etc/my.cnf:

# per thread or per operation settings

#settings that relate to the binary log (if enabled)

Reducing MySQL durability for testing

A while ago, I wrote how to make MySQL perform durably in production. Today I want to do the opposite: configure MySQL (with the InnoDB storage engine) for when you really don't care about your data.

Continuous integration/automated testing is a good example of when you want to do this, since you usually test for functionality and not performance characteristics. It also helps in situations when the data is very easy to rebuild.

Obligatory Disclaimer: These settings are not safe for production environments!

Configuration Settings

  • Keep the binary log disabled (i.e. comment out any log-bin lines in configuration). For testing, you don't need to be able to point-in-time restore, or seed replicas with changes.

  • Set sync_frm=0. This makes any DDL (schema changes) unsafe, but removes an fsync that is required to make sure the changes are safely on disk.

  • Set innodb-flush-log-at-trx-commit=0. This reduces redo log file pressure as data is committed. I would rate this as one of the most important settings to change. The particular case when it will help the most is when you are running on hardware without a battery backed write cache.

  • Set innodb-doublewrite=0. This makes recovery unsafe, as InnoDB will not be able to recover from a partially written page. However, as with all these steps, we are working with the assumption that you will just throw out the data when that happens.

  • Set innodb-checksums=0. Page checksums are InnoDB's mechanism to make sure the underlying hardware isn't failing and corrupting data. It's usually only a small hit (although more measurable with SSDs), and is only used on loading/unloading pages from disk.

  • Set innodb_support_xa=0. This makes sure changes between the binary logs and synchronized. Since we don't care about recoverability, we can disable it.

  • Set innodb-log-file-size and innodb-buffer-pool-size appropriately large. I have a guide here. You can typically go much larger on the log files when you don't care about recoverability - 4G or 8G.

  • In your session set unique_checks=0 and foreign_key_checks=0. These two options are optional, since they are the only recommendation listed here which change behaviour. When set they remove internal constraint checking, which means that a unique key may not actually be unique.

    You may notice these options from files created by mysqldump.

What is an fsync

Many of these settings improve performance specifically because they reduce the number of fsync operations that MySQL needs to do. An fsync is required to keep data safe so it's not in an in memory buffer when power is lost.

But in making the buffers safe, fsync operations also reduce the amount of request re-ordering and merging that can be done at the layers below MySQL. This will typically drop performance substantially in all situations except when you have a RAID Controller with a battery backed cache.

A special note on libeatmydata

Stewart Smith also maintains a library to disable all fsync operations called libeatmydata. I do not expect it to deliver large performance gains over the configuration recommended above, but I can think one good situation to use it: when you have a desire to keep MySQL configuration the same in testing as it is in production. libeatmydata provides an external way to change MySQL's behaviour, since it just requires one small change to how mysqld is started.

Did I miss anything? Please leave a comment.

What to tune in MySQL 5.6 after installation

As the result of
a number of improvements to default values, MySQL 5.6 requires far less configuration than previous versions of MySQL. Having said that, I wanted to write about the settings that you may need to change.

InnoDB Settings

  • innodb_buffer_pool_size - Defaults to 128M. This is the main setting you want to change, since it sets how much memory InnoDB will use for data+indexes loaded into memory. For a dedicated MySQL server, the recommended size is 50-80% of installed memory. So for example, a server with 64G of RAM should have around a 50G buffer pool.

    The danger of setting this value too high is that there will be no memory left for the operating system and some MySQL-subsystems that rely on filesystem cache such as binary logs, and InnoDB's transaction logs.

  • innodb_log_file_size - defaults to 48M. High write throughput systems may want to increase this to allow background checkpoint activities to smooth out over longer periods of time, leading to improved performance. Values up to 4G are quite safe. Historically, the downside of operating with a large log file was increased crash recovery times, but this has vastly improved in 5.5 and 5.6.

  • innodb_flush_method - defaults to fdatasync. if you are using a hardware RAID controller, you may want to set this to O_DIRECT. This prevents the "double buffering" effect of when reading InnoDB buffer pool pages there is both a copy in InnoDB and in operating system's filesystem cache.

    If you do not have a hardware RAID controller, or with some SANs O_DIRECT may lead to worse performance. The manual and Bug #54306 clarify this in more detail.

  • innodb_flush_neighbors - defaults to 1. This setting should be set to 0 (disabled)
    on SSDs which do not have any performance gains with sequential IO. In some hardware configurations it may also be beneficial to disable with RAID, because logically sequential blocks are not guaranteed to be physically sequential.

  • innodb_io_capacity and innodb_io_capacity_max - these settings influence how much background work InnoDB will do per second. In a previous post I described how most write IO (other than writing InnoDB's log) is backgrounded. If you have knowledge of your hardware (and how many operations per second it can perform) it makes sense to consume this capacity rather than let it remain idle.

    The analogy I like to use here is like a flight taking off with empty seats - sometimes it is better to fill them with people who were destined for later flights just in case there is bad weather ahead. i.e. it is better to get rid of all background work at the earliest convenience to reduce liabilities.

    Some simple math: 200 IOPS per disk that can write, so a RAID10 controller with 10 disks = (10/2) * 200 = 1000. I say "simple math", because a RAID controller will often will be able to provide additional merging and effectively increase the number of IOPS you will be capable of. In the case of SSDs, IOPS count will likely be in the thousands.

    The risk of setting this too high is that you do not want background work to be so overwhelming it competes with foreground work for disk capacity. Historically there was some risk of setting this too high that InnoDB would hold an internal lock leading to decreased performance (my understanding is that this is greatly improved in 5.6).

  • innodb_lru_scan_depth - defaults to 1024. This is a new setting introduced in mysql 5.6. Mark Callaghan has written some advice on configuring it. The simple version is that if you raise innodb_io_capacity, so should you increase innodb_lru_scan_depth.


Lets assume that this server will want to be used for replication, or point-in-time recovery, in which case we want:


  • timezone=GMT Change timezone to GMT. A growing number of sysadmins suggest to keep all servers in GMT. I am personally a big fan of this, since almost all businesses are global these days. The locale you first started operating in seems kind of arbitrary.

  • character-set-server=utf8mb4 and collation-server=utf8mb4_general_ci - As I wrote in my previous post, utf8 is a much better defaults for new applications. You may optionally also want to set skip-character-set-client-handshake to ignore applications wanting to set the character-set otherwise.

  • sql-mode - MySQL defaults to be very forgiving, and will silently truncate data. In my previous post, I said that for new applications it is better to set this to be STRICT_TRANS_TABLES,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO,

  • skip-name-resolve - Disables reverse name lookups on incoming connections. DNS resolution can be a little slow/flakey on some systems, so if you don't require hostnames as part of privileges I recommend avoiding it.

  • max_connect_errors - As Todd Farmer writes: "[this feature] provides no meaningful protection against brute force access attacks". And indeed max_connect_errors doesn't even apply when skip-name-resolve is set (as recommended just above).

    A firewall is better suited here, and usually what I will do is block port 3306 both publicly and internally so that only applications intended to have access can connect to MySQL. I will usually then set max_connect_errors to 100000 just so I can avoid any "double configuration" and guarantee it won't get in the way.

  • max-connections - The default is 151. I see a lot of users with this set to a higher value in the 300-1000 range.

    Usually setting this higher is unavoidable, but it makes me a little nervous since a 16-core machine only has an opportunity to be over subscribed by maybe 2x-10x while blocking on IO. What you are hoping for here is that many of the open connections are sleeping idle. If they all become active, you can thread-thrash.

    The way I would ideally like to have this problem solved is by application connection-pools better configured to service the database rather than keep large amounts of connections open, or non-pooled applications connect, execute work and disconnect as fast as possible. Another way to solve it from 5.5 onwards (and one of the few differences between MySQL community edition and enterprise edition) is the thread pool plugin.


So lets assume that we're installing MySQL on a server with:

  • 64G RAM
  • Hardware RAID Controller (lets assume capable of at least 2000 IOPS)
  • Requires Replication
  • It's a new application
  • We have a firewall
  • We don't require hostnames for privileges
  • We have a global application and don't want to be tied to one timezone.
  • We want the application to be durable.

Here might be our sample configuration:

# InnoDB settings

# Binary log/replication
innodb_autoinc_lock_mode = 2

# Other

# Unique to this machine

Hopefully that addresses the major issues. Let me know if you have any other safe advice,
and I'll add to the list!

Improving MySQL's default configuration

One of MySQL's continued values is to be easy to use. A key part of this, is making sure the default configuration is kept up to date and safe for everyone.

Internally, these configuration changes are made in close cooperation between our engineering and support teams, who are in the best position to provide insight into customer impact.

For MySQL 5.6, hats off to James Day who led the project internally. Taken directly from James' blog, here is the list of changes made:

 Setting  Old  New  Notes
back_log  50  50 + ( max_connections / 5 ) capped at 900
binlog_checksum  NONE  CRC32  New variable in 5.6. 5.5 doesn't accept the checksums. Use NONE if you want to read binlog with 5.5 or on master if have replication slaves using 5.5.
binlog-row-event-max-size  1k  8k  no binlog_row_event_max_size variable, just the option form.
flush_time  1800  Windows changes from 1800 to 0  Was already 0 on other platforms
host_cache_size  128  128 + 1 for each of the first 500 max_connections + 1 for every 20 max_connections over 500, capped at 2000  New variable in 5.6
innodb_autoextend_increment  8  64  64 is 64 megabytes
innodb_buffer_pool_instances  0  8. On 32 bit Windows only, if innodb_buffer_pool_size is greater than
1300M, default is innodb_buffer_pool_size
/ 128M
innodb_concurrency_tickets  500  5000
innodb_file_per_table  0  1
innodb_log_file_size  5M  48M  InnoDB will change size to match my.cnf value. Also see innodb_log_compressed_pages and binlog_row_image
innodb_old_blocks_time 0  1000 1 second
innodb_open_files  300  300. If innodb_file_per_table is ON, higher of table_open_cache or 300
innodb_purge_batch_size  20  300
innodb_purge_threads  0  1
innodb_stats_on_metadata  on  off
join_buffer_size 128k  256k
max_allowed_packet  1M  4M
max_connect_errors  10  100
open_files_limit  0  5000  See Note 1
query_cache_size  0  1M
query_cache_type  ON/1  OFF/0
sort_buffer_size  2M  256k
sql_mode  none  NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION  See later post about default my.cnf for STRICT_TRANS_TABLES
sync_master_info  0  10000  Recommend: master_info_repository=table
sync_relay_log  0  10000
sync_relay_log_info  0  10000  Recommend: relay_log_info_repository=table. Also see Replication Relay and Status Logs
table_definition_cache  400  400 + table_open_cache / 2, capped at 2000
table_open_cache  400  2000   Also see table_open_cache_instances
thread_cache_size  0  8 + max_connections/100, capped at 100

Note 1: In 5.5 there were already rules to ask the OS for the highest of (10 + max_connections + table_cache_size * 2) or (max_connections * 5) or the specified/default open_files_limit. The default is now calculated but the other rules are still used. If the OS refuses to allow as many as requested, max_connections and table_cache_size are reduced and you will see a "Changed limits" warning in the error log, as before.

Additional recommendations for new applications

Part of continuing to be easy to use means that as well as having a good set of defaults, users
also have an expectation of backwards compatibility. So there is a tradeoff that sometimes needs
to be taken to make sure that novice users can upgrade their legacy applications with minimal issues.

This tradeoff doesn't apply to new applications, and in which case I recommend the following additional
configuration changes which should be enabled:


# Force UTF-8 character-set:

# Force MySQL to be more strict and not allow legacy
# defaults which truncate data, accept invalidate dates etc
# Shown vertically to be a little easier to read.


UTF-8 is a much smarter default than latin1 today. A simple Google search
shows that converting is an issue for a number of users. I would even go so far as to encourage setting
skip-character-set-client-handshake to ignore applications trying to set the character-set otherwise.

MySQL (arguably) became popular for not being strict about SQL and allowing you to insert any values. This may have made sense if a poor application did not perform error checking, and the alternative was not to store any data. I think that times have changed now - many users will use frameworks and ORMs, and are happy to catch errors up front, rather than later find their data is corrupt.

Moving forward

We are open to feedback on how we introduce configuration changes. You can leave a comment here,
or feel free to contact me.

To get the discussion rolling, what do you think about bundling a small program (mysql-upgrade-defaults) with packages that can optionally be run after installation?

Row-based Replication

Row-based Replication was introduced in MySQL 5.1. It's not the default (yet), but I really like it. I wanted to tell you what limitations you may face with statement-based, and why you should join me in making the switch.

Write scalability of certain statements

Statement based binary logging requires additional locking to ensure slave-consistency. To illustrate, here is a naive example:

 user_id INT NOT NULL primary key,
 user_name varchar(60) NOT NULL,
 is_deleted TINYINT DEFAULT 0,
 UNIQUE KEY(user_name)

INSERT INTO users (user_id, user_name, is_deleted) VALUES
 (1, 'ted', 0),
 (2, 'bill', 0),
 (3, 'fred', 0),
 (4, 'mike', 1),
 (5, 'barry', 0);

session1> DELETE FROM users WHERE is_deleted = 1; # 1 row matches (user_id 4), deleted.
session2> UPDATE users SET is_deleted = 1 WHERE user_id = 5; # 1 row matches.
session2> COMMIT;
session1> COMMIT;

Because statements are only written to the binary log once committed, on the slave session #2 would apply first, and result in two rows being updated by session #1, leading to incorrect results!

InnoDB prevents against this race condition by setting additional locking. After session #1 is modified no other sessions will be updated/insert into the range of is_deleted=1 until session #1 commits.

Actually.. it gets even worse than that, because it will lock the rows based on whatever index can be used. In my case, there's no index so I will lock every rows in the table (eek).

Even with good indexing, statements that have the pattern WHERE col BEWEEN x AND y or WHERE id > N will require gap locking to prevent data being inserted into the range, again to prevent the same inconsistency on the slave.

InnoDB has always had a setting to disable this locking, called innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog. As the name suggests, this is totally unsupported and you will likely get replication drift.

However, astute readers will notice that since row-based replication sends the actual row images of changes to the slaves, this race condition problem no longer exists. And indeed, once you switch to row-based replication binlog-format=ROW, and change the isolation level to transaction-isolation=READ-COMMITTED, these additional locks are no longer set!

Batched insert scalability

When you enable row-based replication, it is safe to set innodb_autoinc_lock_mode = 2. This improves auto-increment scalability with batch INSERT statements.

With the default of innodb_autoinc_lock_mode = 1, the per-table auto_increment generator needs to be locked for the duration of batch insert statements. This is because as rows are written to the binary log, only the first INSERT_ID is seeded to the slave, and locking gurantees deterministic slave replay. i.e.

# Binary logged multi-insert
INSERT into my_table (id, value) VALUES
(NULL, 'Row 1'),
(NULL, 'Row 2'),
(NULL, 'Row 3');

Can you see the race-condition? In between each row we need to protect the auto-increment value so nobody could grab one of the IDs, leading to a conflict on the slave as it tries to just use the next number.

This locking is batched-insert only. It previously also applied to single-row inserts, but that was fixed in MySQL 5.1. You can enable the 5.0 and below behaviour by setting innodb_autoinc_lock_mode = 0, but I can't think of a good reason to do this.

Reasons to not use Row-based replication

I think the two biggest complaints have always been:

  1. Row-based binary logging produces much larger binary log files. This is largely addressed in 5.6 by setting binlog_row_image=minimal.

  2. Row-based events are harder to debug, since you could not previously see the actual statement that generated the row events. This is addressed in MySQL 5.6 with
    binlog-rows-query-log-events. MySQL 5.7 will also make this easier because the need to hand-audit events is reduced with idempotent binary log replay.


Statement-based replication was an okay choice in the past where we had single-core machines, but today scaling requires us to lock less, and perform more work in parallel. It's all about concurrency, concurrency, concurrency.

Have you made the switch? Something else holding you back? Let me know your thoughts in the comments.